Head and Neck Cancer: Types
Growth of cancer in areas such as the mouth, especially lip and tongue, larynx, throat, nose-sinuses are classified under head and neck cancers. This is caused by the accelerated growth and division of the squamous cells present above the moist tissue layer that makes up the surface epithelium. These are primarily caused by consuming alcohol and tobacco products, sometimes smoking too. It has been observed that men are three times more vulnerable to head and neck cancers than females.
Flemington head and neck cancers specialists provide various diagnoses, treatments, and therapies (radiation therapy, targeted therapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy) for head and neck cancer. The treatment and diagnosis depend on the specific type of cancer present. Which can be classified into:
- Nasopharyngeal cancer – It is one of the rare throat cancers which is observed in the nasopharynx, i.e., located in the upper region of the throat, present behind the nose.
- Hypopharyngeal cancer – It is the formation of cancer cells in the tissue of the hypopharynx (located in the lower part of your throat behind the larynx). The cancer cells develop in the lining of the lower pharynx. It does not have clear-cut symptoms, which makes it difficult to notice at an earlier stage.
- Laryngeal cancer – One of the most common types of head and neck cancer is found in the voicebox (larynx). The larynx is involved in talking, breathing, and swallowing. A person affected by laryngeal cancer needs voice rehabilitation.
- Oropharyngeal cancer- This type of cancer is found in the middle part of the throat called the oropharynx and contains the base of the tongue, palate, and tonsils.
- Nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer – This is an uncommon type of cancer that is observed in small, hollow spaces in the nose called paranasal sinuses.
- Lip and oral cavity cancer- oral cancer is most common in men and is found in the regions of lips, gums, teeth, mouth, cheek linings, and hard palate.
- Salivary gland cancer– It is an uncommon type of cancer found in salivary glands. These glands are present in clusters and produce saliva for digestion.
- Squamous cell neck cancer- cancer begins in squamous cells and metastasizes to lymph nodes present in the neck. If there is a presence of squamous cell cancer in the lymph nodes, the doctor will try to find the origin of this cancer called the primary tumor. If the original primary tumor is absent, then the cancer is known as metastatic cancer with occult primary.